my assignment from my lecturer

December 28, 2008 aminudin241072



Lecturer : Hartoyo, M.A., Ph. D.

By : Aminudin

Task 1:

Answer the following questions briefly and precisely! Use the book “individual differences in CALL” for your references in providing your answer!

 1.  Since early 1980s, the utilization of computers as a means of  enhancing the language teaching and learning has been developing significantly. Would you like to explain the underlying reasons or consideration?

 2.  A number of experts argue that the implementation of CALL can positively enhance the language learning due to some advantages. Would you explain some advantages of CALL?

  3. Individual differences should be highlighted or taken into consideration in the implementation of CALL. Why? Provide your reasons supported by relevant theories and empirical studies!

 4.  Would you explain the prominent principles of designing CALL?

 5.  What’s your opinion about utilizing and developing CALL in Indonesia? Is it possible or impossible? Please elaborate your argument.

The Answer:

 1.  The development of information and technology that has followed the development of computer technology has stimulated people especially those who whork in the field of education, such as teachers, curriculum planners and media designers, to endeavor to carry out experiments and studies on the possibilities of utilizing computers for educational purposes. This endeavor has increased with the developmentof so-called hypertext (hypermedia) computer interface. Computer as a means of enhancing the teaching and learning process, known as CAL.

2. The advantages of CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) is:

 Encourage users (students) to develop a non sequential reading habit;

 CALL offers freedom for users to choose any topic of information available within the package;

 CALL can spur the user (student) to be able to collaborate very useful;

 CALL’s flexibility of time allows the student to determine what particular topics and how long he wants to learn.

3. Because individual differences playing an important role in language teaching and learning , and therefore, should be considered.

The theory of learning language should be based on the individual differences in order to get the goal of learning. The teaching learning process is considered in the differences of age, intelligence, attitude, motivation, aptitude, personality toward the subject, personality, previous knowledge, familiarity with the computer, and interactive with native speakers of English. Those variable differences should be put in the part or learning process using CALL.

The empiric study is shown in some models of teaching learning process by some scientists such as Naiman, et al, 1978 with ‘The good language-learner model, Dulay , Burt, and Krashen, 1982 with ‘The monitor theory’, Brown and Fraser, 1979” with Situational variables, and many more models. In each model put the individual differences in the process teaching learning of language. It indicates that Individual differences has enormous influence in the goal of learning .

If so, we as a part of teaching learning process should consider the individual differences first in order to get success in the process of teaching learning language using CALL.


4. The principles of designing CALL:

 Interactivity (feedback and instruction)

Refers to how the program can stimulate interaction between the computer and the user;

 Usability (flexibility)

Refers to the flexibility, ease and inherent interest of the program used, and how easy it is to navigate within the program;

 Content appropriateness

Concerned with the amount of material presented in the program, how easily the material is learned and understood;


Refers to how effectively the program assists language learners to improve their mastery of grammar;

 Performance (attractiveness)

Refers to the presentation, lay out of the screen, the color, and the illustrations used in the programs.

5. It is possible because Indonesia belongs to developing country. And it needs not only developing in physic but also in education. In order to be better to achieve the goal of learning process, especially in learning language, we need CALL. It is very helpful to the students and the teachers in the process or learning.


Entry Filed under: Home assignment

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